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Apie padoruma

Marcin Krol. Politinė devalvacija


2008-08-12


 „Bernardinų” skaitytojams primename subtilaus lenkų mąstytojo Marcino Krolio rašinį, rašytą daugiau nei prieš ketverius metus, kuris yra labai aktualus ir  šių dienų Lietuvai. Tekstas rašytas dar 2004 metų gegužę, bet galima drąsiai teigti, jog jis išlieka aktualus ir šiandien. Pasikeitė kai kurios skandalingiausių veikėjų pavardės, tačiau tendencijos, deja, liko tos pačios.

Kaip įmanoma, kad rinkėjai prezidento rinkimuose balsuoja už  žmones, kurie patys turėtų suvokti, jog yra susikompromitavę, ir kurie iš tiesų akivaizdžiai yra viešai susikompromitavę? Kodėl Slovakijos prezidentu tampa toks žmogus kaip Ivanas Gašparovičius, o Lietuvoje neblogų šansų vėl būtų turėjęs Rolandas Paksas? Nesvarbu, kokia jų tikroji kaltė – net ne teisės, bet demokratijos taisyklių požiūriu – vis viena normalioje šalyje tai būtų neįmanoma.


Lenkijoje taip pat neįmanoma tampa įmanoma – ir parlamento, ir visuotiniuose balsavimuose. Tuo netrukus vėl įsitikinsime per rinkimus į Europos Parlamentą. Visi žino, kas su kuo ir kaip yra susaistytas, kas kur turi neva legalios, o iš tiesų su korupciniais ūkio ir politikos ryšiais susijusios naudos. Visi žino, kurie politikai bėga į parlamentą nuo teismo ir galbūt nuo kalėjimo, bet niekam tai nerūpi. Ar tai ką nors sako apie politikus, ar greičiau apie rinkėjus?


Nei apie vienus, nei apie kitus. Tai rodo politinę aklavietę, į kurią patys save įvarėme. Kai nėra padorumo, viskas įmanoma. Nėra bendro nacionalinio intereso pojūčio, savo politikus viešai puolame tarptautinėse organizacijose. Kiekvienas gali vogti, kiekvienas gali imti kyšius, o padėti draugams darytis pinigus – tai tik smulki paslauga, be to, visiškai legali. Vienas iš pamatinių žmogiškojo, o tuo labiau politinio padorumo principų sako, jog nedera kivirčytis svetimų žmonių akivaizdoje, savo reikalus reikėtų tvarkyti namie. Tačiau kas dabar gali kalbėti apie padorumą?


Kartais susidaro įkyrus įspūdis, jog mūsų padorumo jausmo slenkstis sparčiai leidžiasi. Iš kai kurių pareigų (pavyzdžiui, aukštosios mokyklos titulinio profesoriaus) žmogų galima nušalinti tik tuomet, jei jis seksualiai priekabiauja prie bendradarbio ar bendradarbės, liudininkams matant. Vienas žymus lenkų politikas man pasakojo, kaip prieš daugelį metų pavyko nušalinti kolegą tik tada, kai persekiojamoji sutiko būti vėl persekiojama, o keletas liudininkų stebėjo visa tai pro langą.


Bet galbūt netikusiai formuluojame, galbūt reikėtų sakyti, jog ne viešojo padorumo kartelė nusileido, bet padorumas tiesiog dingo iš viešojo gyvenimo? Bet ir tai bus per silpnai pasakyta, nes juk ir Lietuvoje, ir Lenkijoje, ir Vengrijoje yra rimtų politikų, kuriems iškeltos bylos jau nagrinėjamos teismuose ar bent jau tiriamos prokuratūrose, bet tai nedaro jokios įtakos nei jų elgesiui, nei jų populiarumui. Tad nesama ir teisinio padorumo.


Kodėl tai būdinga ant socialistinio lagerio griuvėsių gimusioms naujoms demokratijoms? Nes šiose šalyse įvyko nematyto masto socialinė revoliucija. Žmonės, sugebėję pasinaudoti trumpalaikiais infliacijos ir netvarkos privalumais, o vėliau – senų ir naujų pažinčių tinklu, beveik be išimčių yra nauji žmonės. Naujų žmonių nesaisto jokie susitarimai su visuomene, o visuomenė žavisi naujais žmonėmis, turinčiais daug pinigų. Po revoliucijos ateina nusikaltėlių eilė. Ne veltui tie, kurie lėmė tai, kad Robespjeras buvo giljotinuotas, vadinami niekšeliais, nors tie patys termidorininkai išvadavo Prancūziją nuo teroro. Garsiajame portrete vaizduojama gražioji ponia Tallien buvo vieno iš šių niekšelių žmona, o talentingas niekšelis Fouche net ir Napoleono laikais liko policijos vadovas. Tačiau atėjo Napoleonas, sutvarkė valstybę ir išmetė daugumą niekšelių, o Prancūzija tapo imperija.


Mūsų šalyse dabar ne bonapartų, o niekšelių konjunktūra. Ką daryti? Turbūt niekas nepadės, kol niekšeliai neprisitaikys prie padorumo taisyklių, ir tai tikrai įvyks, tik ne greičiau, kaip po kokių dviejų dešimtmečių.


Tygodnik Powszechny, 2004-05-30, Iš lenkų kalbos vertė Vytautas Dekšnys.


Bernardinai.lt

Rodyk draugams

~ mari88 | 2008-08-12.

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