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Mari Poisson. Žmonių visuomenė ir ontologinė prievarta

 Visuomenė vystosi ne plėtimosi, o pulsavimo principu.


        Nuo uždaros prie atviros visuomenės niekada nepereinama plėtimosi keliu. Nes šios dvi visuomenės yra skirtingos iš esmės.


      Kurį laiką bet kuri visuomenė yra uždara. Staiga įvyksta netikėtas socialinis sprogimas. Ratas suskyla. Uždara visuomenė tampa atvira.


      Atvira visuomenė iš principo aprėpia visą žmoniją. Ji akimirksniu pakeičia žmones, leidžia įveikti sunkumus, kurie iki tol atrodė neįveikiami.


      Pasauliui sprogus, iš begalybės į senas literatūrines bei religines  formas staiga įsilieja netikėtos mintys, idėjos, chaosas, nežinomybė.


      Bet ratas, kuris trumpą akimirką buvo atsivėręs, kaskart vėl užsidaro. Apsiprantama su naujovėmis, palengva prisitaikoma, naujovės pripažįstamos, Nusprendžiama, kad tai pažanga ir visuomenė kurį laiką ramiai eina tuo pažangos keliu.


      Visuomenė užsiėmusi. Tenka tarsi vėl viską iš naujo sutvarkyti ir sudėlioti į lentynėles. Artikuliuoti naujoves, įvardyti, įforminti. Senas sulaužytas formas pertvarkyti, modifikuoti arba išmesti.


      Tvarkant, tyrinėjant ir tobulinant viešąją sferą, iškyla labai svarbus uždavinys – sukurti bendradarbiavimo kultūrą. Mat viešybei staiga tampa prieinami visai nauji reiškiniai, kuriuos visuomenė turės sutvarkyti ir priimti.


      Šiuo atžvilgiu tobulinti viešąją sferą reiškia sutelkti dėmesį į  bendradarbiavimą ir saviugdą bei juos palaikančias sąlygas, kad eidama minėtuoju pažangos keliu visuomenė pasiektų geresnių rezultatų, kurių be išlygų tikisi.


      Manau, kad ir paties žmogaus kaip proceso tobulinimas yra irgi ne kas kita, bet ypatingas požiūris į šią viešosios sferos kaitą. Mat tikimasi, kad einant pažangos keliu  sustiprės ir visų visuomenės narių gebėjimas tą pažangą valdyti. Tam reikia strategijų, numatančių, kaip vykstant kaitai padėti visuomenei geriau prisitaikyti ir tobulėti.


      Visur įsivyrauja pareiga. Pasaulis aiškėja, paprastėja ir lėkštėja. Atsiranda lėkštumo trauka.


      Individualūs siekiai tampa socialine prievarta, kuri yra labai nuosekli ir milžiniškų mastų. Chaoso pliūpsnis patenka į visuomenės vidų ir ją pakeičia. Atvira visuomenė užsidaro. Prasideda naujovių tvarkymo ir “virškinimo” procesas.




          Šia proga, manau, labai tiktų perpasakoti mitą apie dvi pirmąsias Dzeuso žmonas. Metidę ir Temidę.


          Abi jos yra orakulines dievybės, kurių visažinystė aprėpia visą laiko ciklą…
Abi jos susijusios su tokiomis pirminėmis kosminėmis substancijomis, kaip vanduo ir žemė.


          Abi jos turi sugebėjimų, įgytų dar prieš Dzeuso viešpatavimą ir netgi prieš Krono jaunėlio gimimą.Tačiau jų visažinystė yra skirtingo pobūdžio. Ir kaip tik šis skirtingumas paaiškina, kodėl Dzeusas, prarijęs Metidę, susieina su Temide. 


          Šios dvi santuokos papildo viena kitą, kad užtikrintų naujojo dievų valdovo pranašumą, kaip kad viena kitą papildo abi deivės, sujungtos į kartu veikiančių, bet priešingų jėgų porą.


          Metidė -  permaininga deivė. Ji susijusi su ateitimi kaip su atsitiktinumu. Jos kalbejimas hipotetiškas arba problemiškas. Ji pataria, ką derėtų veikti, kad dalykai klostytųsi verčiau taip, nei kitaip. Ji nusako ateitį ne kaip jau esančią, bet kaip nelaimės ar laimės galimybę. Kartu atskleidžia ir savo sumanaus žinojimo gudrybes, galinčias kreipti tą ateitį verčiau į gera, nei į bloga.


          Metidė įsikiša tada, kai dieviškasis pasaulis dar tebekunkuliuoja, kai  dieviškoji epocha ypač sumaištinga ir dramatiška, o jėgų pusiausvyra sutrikusi: konfliktas dėl paveldėjimo, kovos dėl aukščiausios valdžios, mūšiai bei maištai, naujo valdovo iškėlimas. Taigi ano pasaulio galybės turi progą parodyti drąsą bei jėgą, o drauge ir protingą iniciatyvą, gudrumą bei išradingumą.


          Dzeusas nėra toks, kaip kiti valdovai. Susijungdamas su Metide, Dzeusas ne tik nuvertė Kroną ir sugriovė senąjį būvį,  bet ir įgijo galimybių visiškai naujai tvarkai įvesti.


          Tačiau, kai pergalė pasiekta, Metidės gudrybės jau kelia grėsmę benusistovinčiai tvarkai. Jos nuovokumas atsiskleidžia ten, kur pilna netikėtumų, ji supainioja situacijas, sugriauna griežčiausias hierarchijas, - dėl to su jos palikuonimis siejama mitinė pavojingumo tema.


          Metidės vaikai paveldės iš savo motinos jai būdingą gudrumą ir klastingumą. Būtent dėl to deivės sūnui lemta paneigti tėvo galią ir nuversti esamą valdovą, kad jo vietą užimtų naujas.



         Po jungtuvių su Metide dievų valdovas Dzeusas ją užvaldo ir praryja. Tokiu būdu jis visiškai perima visas jos savybes ir pats tampa metieta (išminčiumi).


         Prarydamas Metidę, Dzeusas suvaržo ją amžinos nelaisvės saitais; jis galutinai uždaro daivę savyje, kad, su ja sutapęs, nuspėtų visus ateities atsitiktinumus ir galėtų vairuoti nepastovią ir nežinomą įvykių eigą.



         Tada Dzeusas veda antrą kartą – šįkart titanidę Temidę



       Temidės visažinystė yra kitokia. Ji susijusi su tvarka, kuri suvokiama kaip kažkas jau nustatyta, galutinai patvirtinta ir įdiegta. Jos kalbėjimas yra kategoriškas. Ji byloja apie ateitį taip, lyg ši jau būtų dabar. Kalbėdama apie tai, kas bus, tarytum apie tai, kas jau yra, ji nepatarinėja, o skelbia nuosprendžius. Ji liepia arba draudžia.


       Temidė dieviškajame pasaulyje reiškia stabilumą, tęstinumą bei dėsningumą. Nenutrūkstamą tvarką, ciklišką metų kaitą, likimo ištartį. Ji turi nužymėti tai, kas uždrausta, nužymėti ribas, kurių nevalia peržengti, hierarchijas, kurias reikia gerbti, kad kiekvienas visada laikytųsi jam priderančio rango ir savo valdų.


       Ji pagimdys puikius vaikus: Metų laikus bei Lemtis.


       Susidėdamas su Temide, Dzeusas įteisina savo ką tik paskelbtas taisykles, savo valią išaukštinti bei privilegijuoti. Dviguba santuoka vainikuoja naujojo valdovo atėjimą ir buvusio monarcho žlugimą, nuo šiol niekas jo nepakeis. Neatšaukiamais sprendimais jis nustato būsimų įvykių seką kaip funkcijų, rangų bei pagerbimų hierarchiją. Tuos įvykius, tiesą sakant, jis sustabdo. Kad ir kas atsitiktų, nuo šiol viskas jau yra visiems laikams numatyta ir patvirtinta Dzeuso galvoje.


       Taigi aukščiausioji valdžia nustoja būti nepaliaujamos kovos siekiamybe ir tampa pastovia nuolatine tvarka.


 


        Dramatiškas kovos prieš permainas scenarijus parodo, kaip visuomenė perima  metidiškumą, kaip įgyja visas tas savybes, kurios leidžia išsisukti iš padėties be išeities, kaip jau net pačiame kaitos ir permainų įkarštyje juntamas posūkis į perėjimą nuo to, kas teka ir keičiasi, prie to, kas tvirta ir pastovu, nuo miglotumo prie aiškumo, nuo prieštaringumo prie vienareikšmiškumo, nuo dvejonės prie tikrumo.


 


 

Rodyk draugams

~ mari88 | 2008-07-04.

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